Unless you have a lot more money than your average Teenager that I Grew up with, I wont even start on external Pre's because in order to really get an advantage out of them you need to cover a lot of other things first, and at any rate the good ones are 1000+ dollars typically. I dont even have one
What you should do however is look at audio interfaces and start from there. I would reccomend getting a DI box if you dont already have one for your guitar, and running out of that into your interface. A cheap DI box will be very handy both in recording and especially on stage and is a worthwhile investment anyways.
Interfaces take your choice. You can get simple ones for under 100 dollars now, or better ones for more than that. In as far as Mics, that all depends on your budget and what type of music, wether it needs to double on stage, etc.. Your basic stage Mic for vocals, the SM-58 runs about 100 dollars(Typically you can find em for a little under) and can double for vocals in recording as a good starter mic. If you are just looking for recording then looking into condensers can be worthwhile, AT makes some cheaper Large Diapraghm Condenser Mics that are good to start with for vocals I have been told. The 2020 and 4040 are the model numbers. However Condenser mics are much more fragile so I wouldnt use them on stage unless you have money to replace them. Again just a hunch that you probably dont.
If you go with condensers make sure whatever interface you pick up has phantom power, as you need that in order to power the condenser mic. Also make sure it has a Midi interface as you mentioned needing to record Midi.
You should also look at some basic monitors to listen to your mixes through. Headphones can work great if you get the right set, there is obviously an entire thread stickyfied above this for that purpose, but hours of mixing on headphones aint the greatest, and you should honestly listen to your mixes in speakers anyways every now and then, as a good set of headphoens sounds different than what you will normally hear it over, aka speakers.
I would reccomend looking up basic recording and sound techniques though before you begin, especially if you had problems understanding any of this, as it will help you understand what you are getting it, and why it would eb a good choice. If you have specific questions then you can ask here and someone can usually take a shot at answering them.
I also dont think youll get good reccomendations for a setup without mentioning your price range, as your quality you can afford will vary depending on how much money you can invest. Recording equipment is not cheap. I reccomended the AT series mics as I took a guess you wouldnt have to much money, that doesnt mean it will always be a good choice, depending as I said your music and your money, and also to an extent the type of voice being recorded(Though typically when you can worry about that you are looking at better mics than those ATs anyways)